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In total there are 165 English news articles.
In all primates some important genes regulating adaptive immune responses are located together on one chromosome in the so-called Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). During germ cell production identical chromosomes of the parents may cross, break and exchange parts of their genetic material in a process called crossing-over or recombination.
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a specific component of the myelin sheath, a compact multi-lamellar structure that winds around axons in the central nervous system (CNS) and protects them against injury. The only well-established function of MOG is detrimental, as it is the primary target of autoimmune reactions against CNS myelin in the disease multiple sclerosis (MS). It is unlikely, however, that expression of MOG in such vulnerable organs as brain and spinal cord is tolerated when it would not have a relevant physiological role, although such function has not been documented thus far. BPRC scientists have contributed to the elucidation of this enigma by scientists from the Free University Medical Center in Amsterdam.
DNA is the material in which the genetic information of an organism is fixed. This DNA is a mixture of the DNA of the parents. From generation to generation it is inherited, including newly created changes in the genetic code. These mutations are in humans mostly derived from the father. To investigate whether this is also the case in chimpanzees, the DNA sequences from nine members of a chimpanzee family were determined.
A vaccine to protect against a (life-threatening) infectious disease, aims to train the immune system in order to acquire the right weapons to combat an infection. It is becoming increasingly clear that the genetic background of the patient plays an important role in the efficacy of a vaccine. The immune system must not only attack the right part of the virus but it also needs to have access to the tools that are needed to do so. BPRC researchers have obtained new evidence for this in a study with stored cells from chimpanzees that were earlier vaccinated against Hepatitis C.
West Nile Virus (WNV) is spread by mosquitoes, and infects mammals, including humans. In humans, WNV can cause serious neurological disorders, sometimes with fatal outcome. In recent years, in North America and Europe, there has been a significant increase in the number of outbreaks caused by this virus. There is no vaccine available against WNV and therefore more research on this virus is urgently needed.
Rodent models for autoimmune diseases have shown a poor predictive value for the situation in humans. The lack of knowledge of the background and treatment methods in relation to this type of disease has led to a stagnation in the development of new treatment methods. Monkey models can play a crucial role in solving this knowledge gap.
Viruses can skip from monkeys to humans. The reverse situation can also occur. For health benefit of man and ape, it is important to investigate these potentially dangerous viruses.
Because of their close resemblance to humans, non-human primates (NHP) are used to study particular aspects of human biology and disease. That resemblance also poses an important dilemma in biomedical research. Like humans, non-human primates are complex social species and their welfare, housing and care taking is demanding for specialized expertise and facilities. Both society and biomedical researchers wish to reduce the numbers of animals needed for experimental purposes to an absolute minimum, with a maximum effort to ensure animal welfare and good science. Important guidelines for that quest are the three R’s of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement.
The malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax, worldwide one of the most common causes of malaria in humans, can hide in the liver for years and, following an unknown trigger, cause disease. These dormant forms, called hypnozoites, are difficult to eliminate. Due to the inaccessibility of this stage of the parasite life cycle, very little is known about the biology of hypnozoites. As a result, drug targets for new treatment regimes that eliminate these stages are lacking. Therefore, the development of a culture system that enables research on the awakening of hypnozoites is very welcome.